Issue 4 / 2020

Article: Hybrid materials based on ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles as hydrophobic coatings for textiles

Authors: LAURA CHIRILA, LUDMILA OTILIA CINTEZA, MARIA TANASE, DIANA ELENA RADULESCU, DENISA MARIA RADULESCU, IOANA RODICA STANCULESCU
Pages: 297-301
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1814
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

This study presents a strategy to obtain textile materials with hydrophobic/oleophobic effect by applying hybrid coatings based on a mixture of flower-like ZnO nanoparticles and organically modified SiO2 nanoparticles (ORMOSIL). The obtained dispersions based on both types of nanoparticles are stable, with unimodal distribution of smaller quasi spherical shape and average size of 158 nm for SiO2 nanoparticles and respectively, with bimodal distribution with a broad distribution of particle size and average size of 144 nm and 435 nm for ZnO flower-like nanoparticles. The ZnO/SiO2 NPs based dispersions were then applied on 100% cotton fabrics on a laboratory scale by padding method in two successive phases. The functionalized cotton fabrics were evaluated in terms of surface morphology changes, whiteness degree and water and oils repellent properties. The developed textile materials exhibited a low wetting capacity, with high values of water absorption time (> 15 minutes) and a water-repellent degree of 75 (AATCC photo - graphic scale) and 2.5 respectively (ISO scale) showing an acceptable hydrophobic effect. The functionalization treatment based on mixture of ZnO/SiO2 nanoparticles led to obtaining an efficient cotton substrate for the rejection and protection against the oily substances which exhibit an oil repellency degree of 6. Also, the functionalization treatments did not significantly change the surface morphology of the fibres, suggesting that the bulk properties of the cotton fibres remained undamaged.
Keywords: flower-like ZnO nanoparticles, SiO2 nanoparticles, cotton fabric, water repellency, oil repellency

Citation: Chirila, L., Cinteza, L.O., Tanase, M., Radulescu, D.E., Radulescu, D.M., Stanculescu, I.R., Hybrid materials based on ZnO and SiO2 nanoparticles as hydrophobic coatings for textiles, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 297-301,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1814

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Article: Investigation of the comfort properties of traditional woven fabrics with different structural parameters

Authors: MINE AKGUN, GIZEM KARAKAN GUNAYDIN, AYÇA GÜRARDA, ERHAN KENAN ÇEVEN
Pages 302–308 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1701
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

Turkish traditional Buldan weavings are known as special fabrics in terms of providing comfortable clothes which are known to be natural and healthy in Denizli, Turkey. The research presented in this paper assesses the effects of different fabric structural parameters of Buldan fabrics on comfort properties such as thermal resistance, thermal absorptivity, water vapour permeability and air permeability. Five different Buldan fabrics woven with different fabric structural parameters were produced. According to test results, cotton/Tencel Buldan fabrics indicated similar comfort properties with the 100% cotton Buldan fabric properties. Additionally, the lowest thermal absorptivity was observed from 100% cotton Buldan fabrics which give the warmth feeling among the evaluated samples.
Keywords: Buldan woven fabric, fabric structural parameters, thermal resistance, water vapour permeability, air permeability

Citation: Akgun, M., Gunaydin, G.K., Gürarda, A., Çeven, E.K., Investigation of the comfort properties of traditional woven fabrics with different structural parameters, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 302–308,   http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1701

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Article: Narrative designed proposals of mechanical or electro-mechanical optimization to the current wheelchairs used by people with severe locomotion restraints

Authors: AURA SPINU, VLADIMIR CARDEI, VALERIU AVRAMESCU, IOANA ANDONE, AURELIA ROMILA, AURELIAN ANGHELESCU, MIHAIL TIBERIU AVRAMESCU, ANA-MARIA BUMBEA, ELENA VALENTINA IONESCU, VLAD CIOBANU, CRISTINA DAIA, GELU ONOSE
Pages 309-320 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1830
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

The field of mechatronic/robotic wearable exoskeletons, specifically those designated for assistance/rehabilitation in severe neuro-/locomotor disabling conditions in the lower limbs, is considered to have a great potential for radically changing the harsh condition of wheelchairs users, by restoring their defining human traits: bipedal, vertical, stance and gait. But even the most advanced such complex devices, are not yet effectively able to largely replace the wheelchairs. Therefore, until the overall complete wheelchairs’ substitutes, will meet, in this purpose, all the necessary related requirements, we have determined, and accordingly, designed – from a double perspective: of professionals and of (a) consumer – a series of necessary and rather accessible/feasible, consistent: mechanical and electro-mechanical improvements, to the current common type of wheelchairs, in order to improve the global functioning, autonomy and consequently, the quality of life in the needing people, with severe mobility restraints. These, for now, narratively innovative concepts and specifically designed, practical/technological-constructive solutions, target 10 main kinds of beneficial outcomes, i.e. a decalogue and their derivatives to be expected (most of them previously imagined by us but not completely designed until now, two of them already achieved but which need updating and other four entirely new), that could result in an “all-in-one” product paradigm which, to our knowledge, is not available at present. This model of wheelchair we propose is, at the same time, modular, so a certain consumer can purchase/ be offered only his/her own case-specific needed optimization components of it.
Keywords: severe mobility restraints, improved wheelchair, variable geometry, multi-functional rear wheel guards, pliability, modular all-in-one product paradigm

Citation: Spinu, A., Cardei, V., Avramescu, V., Andone, I., Romila, A., Anghelescu, A., Avramescu, M.T., Bumbea, A.-M., Ionescu, E.V., Ciobanu, V., Daia, C., Onose, G., Narrative designed proposals of mechanical or electro-mechanical optimization to the current wheelchairs used by people with severe locomotion restraints, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 309–320,   http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1830


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Article: Textile wing fabric for emergency response UAS

Authors: ADRIAN SALISTEAN, CARMEN MIHAI
Pages 321-326 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1762
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

The fabrics used to manufacture parachutes and paragliders must have several specific characteristics: the mass of fabric per unit of surface must be low while the other physical-mechanical characteristics (the axial breaking strength load, the relative and absolute elongation, the tear resistance of the fabric and the assemblies, air permeability) must have high values. The paper deals with the analysis of qualitative aspects of several parachute fabrics that are used as a baseline in the development of a novel fabric. The results of experiments have materialized in statistical data, diagrams and graphs and their interpretation leads to the determination of the fabric variant that best meets the requirements of the destination. The destination is a patent pending inflatable wing design that utilizes a single skin construction and solid reinforcements in the sewing for shape stability. It is worth noting that the experimental results were compared with values indicated in specific international testing norms.
Keywords: parachute, paraglider, single sail, technical textile, fabric testing

Citation: Săliștean, A., Mihai, C., Textile wing fabric for emergency response UAS, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 321–326,   http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1762

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Article: The holiday effects in stock returns: a challenge for the textile and clothing industry of India

Authors: BOLAR SHAKILA, PINTO PRAKASH, IQBAL THONSE HAWALDAR, CRISTI SPULBAR, RAMONA BIRAU
Pages 327-333 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1710
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

This research paper examines the holiday effects presence on the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), which is a major Indian stock exchange. Textile and clothing industry in India is one of the most important producers in the world, but also the second exporter of textile and apparels globally. The empirical analysis investigates the impact of holiday effect on the development of textile and clothing industry in India. The holiday effect is one of the most important calendar anomalies identified in the financial markets. The methodological approach includes the non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test used to test the equality of means for different sub-sets. The findings revealed that the mean returns for pre-holiday and post holidays were greater compared to that of remaining days, but the empirical results showed that they were not statistically significant for selected stocks of BSE based on daily stock returns data for Ruby Mills and Mafatlal Industries.
Keywords: textile, clothing, pre-holiday effect, calendar anomaly, abnormal returns, Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH), non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test

Citation: Shakila, B., Prakash, P., Hawaldar, I.T., Spulbar, C., Birau, R., The holiday effects in stock returns: a challenge for the textile and clothing industry of India, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 327–333,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1710

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Article: Multivariate regression analysis of the 3D composites with electroconductive properties for sensors

Authors: RALUCA MARIA AILENI, SILVIA ALBICI, LAURA CHIRIAC, IRINA-MARIANA SĂNDULACHE
Pages 334-339 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1767
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

This work presents several aspects of the multivariate regression importance in the analysis of the parameters (dependent and independent variables), which characterize the 3D composite materials with electroconductive properties. The experimental part was developed by using fabrics from 100% cotton, 100% polyamide, and 100% polypropylene fabrics to obtain the electroconductive and electromagnetic properties based on classical technologies and 3D digital printing advanced technology. The fabric was printed with paste containing zinc, copper, nickel, iron oxide II, III, silver, and Graphite microparticles content. Initially, the fabric has coated using the standard technologies implemented by padding (Flame Retardants), scraping, and 3D printing advanced technology for submission of the ESD filaments. For flame retardancy properties, the fabric has been impregnated in a solution of 50% Aflamit and dried at a temperature of 120°C for 3 minutes.
Keywords: composites, textile, electroconductive, resistance, microparticles, sensors

Citation: Aileni, R.M., Albici, S., Chiriac, L., Săndulache, I.-M., Multivariate regression analysis of the 3D composites with electroconductive properties for sensors, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 334–339,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1767

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Article: Quality inspection and prediction of the comfort of fabrics finished with functional polymers

Authors: MELKIE G.TADESSE, EMIL-CONSTANTIN LOGHIN, VINCENT NIERSTRASZ, MARIA-CARMEN LOGHIN
Pages 340-349 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1734
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

Textile’s primary hand (HV) and total hand values (THV) are very important parameters and are used to identify the quality of clothing comfort. This paper aims to predict the HV and THV of the fabrics finished with functional polymers by applying Kawabata’s translation equations. The mechanical properties were achieved using Kawabata’s fabric evaluation system (KES-F) and the inference/interpretation was drawn. Then, HV and THV predictions were performed by applying Kawabata’s translation equations of the KN-101 and KN-301 series. The KES-F result confirmed that it is possible to observe the operative finishing effect on the mechanical properties of fabrics. The prediction results show that the total quality comfort of the functional fabrics could able be estimated by the equation developed by Kawabata; the calculated errors (~0.66) were within the range of the standard deviations (~0.78) of the samples between the predicted and ranked THV. The experimental and the calculated primary hand values showed strong correlation coefficients up to ~0.98 which is significant at 0.001 confidence levels. As actual functional fabrics with various surface properties were provided to estimate their tactile comfort via the equations, the result verified that the equation is reliable for the tactile comfort evaluation and grading.
Keywords: translation equations, THV, low-stress mechanical properties, tactile comfort, polymer

Citation: Tadesse, M.G., Loghin, E.-C., Nierstrasz, V., Loghin, M.-C., Quality inspection and prediction of the comfort of fabrics finished with functional polymers, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 340–349,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1734

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Article: Dyeing and colour fastness of natural dye from Citrus aurantium on Lyocell fabric

Authors: NAVEED TAYYAB, RASHDI YASEEN SAYED, REHMAN FAISAL, WEI WANG, AWAN ASHRAF JAVEED, ABBAS MUDASSAR, FRAZ AHMAD, AWAIS MUHAMMAD
Pages 350-356 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1686
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

The use of natural dyes for textiles has attained attention due to their ecology, minimum impact on the environment and pollution. Therefore the objective of this study is to dye Lyocell fabric with natural dye extracted from orange peel for comparative analysis of colour efficiencies (K/S), CIE L*a*b* values and the colour fastness properties. The mordants applied were ferrous (II) sulphate and copper (II) sulphate. For the extraction of the dye, the aqueous extraction method was used. The pre-mordanting method was used and the dyeing effect on Lyocell fabric was analyzed at concentrations of 2% and 4%. It was observed that the mordant type employed had an influence on the colour efficiency and the colour coordinates of fabric dyed with Citrus aurantium dye. The colour efficiency (K/S: 4) and colour fastness to washing, light, rubbing and perspiration in all the dyed samples were better and excellent (grade 4–5) at 4% concentration. In overall results, the pre-mordanting method at 4% concentration gives the best results of colour efficiency and colour fastness properties. The performance analysis of colour fastness was also statistically significant at the 0.05 level.
Keywords: natural dyes, orange peel, Lyocell, extraction, mordant, colour fastness

Citation: Tayyab, N., Sayed, R.Y., Faisal, R., Wang, W., Javeed, A.A., Mudassar, A., Ahmad, F., Muhammad, A., Dyeing and colour fastness of natural dye from Citrus aurantium on Lyocell fabric, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 350–356,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1686

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Article: Social responsibility in the textile industry in Romania

Authors: NICOLETA ANDREEA NEACŞU, SIMONA BĂLĂŞESCU, MARIUS BĂLĂŞESCU, CARMEN ELENA ANTON
Pages 357-363 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1676
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

In a sustainable society, the integration into the activity of entities of the actions from the sphere of social responsibility becomes more and more evident. The study analyzes the textile industry in Romania in terms of social responsibility, the involvement of companies in this industry in asserting the values of this level. Thus, a quantitative marketing research is carried out at the level of the population in Romania, a piece of research which is aimed at identifying the opinions and attitudes of the citizens regarding the social responsibility adopted by the Romanian companies, with emphasis on the companies in the textile industry. In this research, particular attention was given to the comprehension of the reality of the aspects in which consumers perceive the requirements of social responsibility and of the way in which they function in practice. The results of this research can be used by the companies in the textile industry as well as by all the companies interested in this aspect in order to improve the quality of the services and of their implications in the social life and in order to respond to the needs of the citizens as well as possible.
Keywords: social responsibility, social ethics, consumer behaviour, quantitative research, textile industry

Citation: Neacșu, N.A., Bălășescu, S., Bălășesc, M., Anton, C.E., Social responsibility in the textile industry in Romania, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 357–363,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1676

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Article: Examining causality between market share and competitiveness: case study textile industry

Authors: NIKOLA V. ĆURČIĆ, ALEKSANDAR GRUBOR, NIKOLA RADIVOJEVIĆ, ZORAN D. SIMONOVIĆ
Pages 364-370 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1727
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

The paper dealt with the existence of causality in Granger’s sense between competitiveness and market share, and vice versa, on emerging markets so as to answer the question whether it is possible to forecast the movement of the market share of an enterprise based on the data about the movement of the competitiveness of that enterprise. The research study was carried out on 96 textile companies from Serbia, Montenegro, and Bosnia and Herzegovina. The results of research have shown that relationship between competitiveness and market share is generally weak and in many industrial sectors it is nonexistent. In other words, the research results reveal that the existence of causality in Granger’s sense between competitiveness and market share on the selected emerging markets depends on the branch of textile industry.
Keywords: market share, competitiveness, emerging markers, Granger causality, textile industry

Citation: Ćurčić, N.V., Radivojević, N., Grubor, A., Simonović, Z.D., Examining causality between market share and competitiveness: case study textile industry, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 364–370,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1727

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Article: Online customized T-shirt design and evaluation of online websites for customization

Author: AHMET ÖZBEK
Pages 371-379 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1674
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

Customized clothing manufacturing is a clothing manufacturing method realized and performed in collaboration between the manufacturer and the customer. In this manufacturing method, the customer is offered a basic piece of clothing and various options (fabric, model, color, style, accessories, printing on clothing, etc.) so that the customer can modify the clothing and design the most suitable garment. Thanks to this manufacturing method, the customer has the opportunity to purchase the most appropriate personalized clothing while, at the same time, the manufacturer achieves a high profit margin by making a customized product. Customized clothing production is an important method in the industry because it increases both the profit margin of the enterprises and the level of customer satisfaction. Although it is not yet a very common method, it is expected that it will become widespread in the future with technological developments. Within the framework of this study, we focused on online customized T-shirt manufacturing. The study was carried out in three stages. In the first stage, the design options that young consumers prefer and/or need for online customized T-shirt design were determined. In the second stage, websites that perform the manufacturing of customized T-shirt that are available online in Turkey were determined. In the third stage, online T-shirt design options determined in the first stage were presented to the customers by the websites determined during the second stage. According to the assessment, customized T-shirt design websites active in Turkey were found to be adequate in terms of the “design with respect to body sizes” option. In addition, some design options that online personalized T-shirt design websites intend to offer change according to the gender and education of young consumers.
Keywords: product customization, T-shirt, clothing, website, customer

Citation: Özbek, A., Online customized T-shirt design and evaluation of online websites for customization, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 371–379,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1674

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Article: Effects of environmentally friendly degumming methods on some surface properties, physical performances and dyeing behaviour of silk fabrics

Authors: TUBA TOPRAK, MINE AKGUN, PERVIN ANIS
Pages 380-387 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1675
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

In this paper, the effect of degumming processes on the physical performance, surface properties and colour coordinates of silk fabrics at high temperature and enzymatically, which was developed as an alternative to conventional method, has been investigated. Degummed silk fabrics were compared in terms of weight loss, bending length, tear and breaking strength, surface roughness and friction coefficient. After these tests, acid dyeing was performed to observe different degumming methods effect on dyeing behaviour of degummed silk fabric. The colour coordinates were evaluated by L*, a*, b*, C*, h0, K/S, and ΔE* values. The results revealed that despite insignificant differences between conventional and alternative methods in terms of physical performance and surface properties, the conventional method gave slightly better results than the others. There were no significant differences in colour depth between the two processes. These reasons showed that the alternative method could be used instead of the traditional method and a more sustainable process has been designed.
Keywords: degumming, enzyme, environmentally friendly, friction, roughness, silk

Citation: Toprak, T., Akgun, M., Anis, P., Effects of environmentally friendly degumming methods on some surface properties, physical performances and dyeing behaviour of silk fabrics, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 380–387,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1675

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Article: Comparative assessment of dexterity tests results using two internationally recognized scales in patients with cerebral palsy, users of medical textiles

Authors: CORINA SPOREA, MARGARETA STELA FLORESCU, DUMITRU FERECHIDE, IOAN CRISTESCU
Pages 388-392 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.20205
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

The recent studies report an increase in the percentage of newborns diagnosed with cerebral palsy (CP) in industrialized countries due to the increased survival rate of infants with low birth weight. The assessment of the upper limb motor function and manual skills are important steps in achieving a suitable multi-modal therapeutical plan, aiming at gaining functional independence and early integration into society. The study seeks to identify how the motor deficiency present at the level of the upper limbs influences the manual skills of CP patients reflected in daily activities (Activities of Daily Living – ADL) and using medical textiles. 35 patients diagnosed with CP were assessed during hospitalization using, for the comparative reflection of ADL dexterity assessment results, at the same patient, quantified, the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) scale and ABILHAND-Kids. A highly significant correlation was found, the ABILHAND-Kids score being moderately correlated with the ARAT score, obtained in the upper limb with more deficient functionality (0.578) and respec tively with better functionality (0.570). The assessment of the child suffering of CP, using the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire and the ARAT test provides to the rehabilitation team useful information, with the benefit of complemen - tarity for the elaboration, based on several correlated elements, of the case management plan and methodology. Proper treatment, instituted early, can have a favorable influence on the social integration of these people. A remarkable contribu tion has been made by the textile domain which, through its sustained concerns regarding the research and development of biotechnologies and biomaterials, proves its permanent concern in supporting and integrating these people.
Keywords: upper limb motor function, manual skills/dexterity, day-to-day activities, upper limb motricity disorders, social inclusion

Citation: Sporea, C., Florescu, M.S., Ferechide, D., Cristescu, I., Comparative assessment of dexterity tests results using two internationally recognized scales in patients with cerebral palsy, users of medical textiles, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 388–392,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.20205

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Article: Computational modelling of the heat transfer through two-layer woven structure ensembles

Authors: ANGELOVA A. RADOSTINA, MIROSLAV KYOSOV, PETER STANKOV
Pages 393-397 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1653
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the heat transfer through a system of two consecutive textile layers with woven macrostructures by numerical simulation, using FLUENT CFD software package. A novel approach for modelling of the textile structure was applied, based on jet systems. The heat transfer through the systems of layers was studied for indoor conditions, simulating skin and indoor air temperature, as well as the effect of the convective cross flow around the human body. The results of the study showed that the heat transfer through a system of two layers is strongly influenced by the porosity and thickness of the fabrics, as well as their arrangement in the systems as an insulating barrier between the body and the environment.
Keywords: systems of layers, woven textiles, jet system, CFD, FLUENT

Citation: Radostina, A.A., Kyosov, M., Stankov, P., Computational modelling of the heat transfer through two-layer woven structure ensembles, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 393–397,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1653

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Article: A new objective function for the assembly line balancing optimization in terms of workers’ global competence

Authors: ZOUHOUR CHOURABI, AMEL BABAY, FAOUZI KHEDHER, MORCHED CHEIKHROUHOU
Pages 398-407 
DOI: 10.35530/IT.071.04.1545
Published online: August 2020

Abstract

This paper proposes an optimization model for the Assembly Line Balancing Problem (ALBP) in order to improve the work group choice in clothing industry. Traditionally, ALBP deals with several objectives like minimization of workstations number, minimization of cycle time, maximization of workload smoothness, and maximization of work relatedness…but neglect operators’ performance. As the worker competence is crucial to both product quality and productivity, an approach is proposed to balance production line through optimal operators’ assignment with the consideration of their skill levels. Based on two criteria, which are the Quality Index “QI” and the Activity “A”, each worker was evaluated in each executed operation. From these individual criteria, global indicators of the work group selected were proposed. Applying the Weighted Sum Model (WSM) a more general indicator which is the global Competence Index “CIg” was presented. Using simple linear regression model, the global competence was modelled. Thereafter, the model was validated and justified. The resulting performance indicator allowed predicting the global competence level, comparing different balancing proposals and making an optimal choice. So, a new objective function to maximize can be used in ALBP resolution in order to optimize the selected group capability.
Keywords: Assembly Line Balancing Problem, objective function, Weighed Sum Model, global competence index, simple linear regression model

Citation: Chourabi, Z., Babay, A., Khedher, F., Cheikhrouhou, M., A new objective function for the assembly line balancing optimization in terms of workers’ global competence, In: Industria Textila, 2020, 71, 4, 398–407,  http://doi.org/10.35530/IT.071.04.1545

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